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1. Describe three ways the weather has affected you so far today.
Ans. Any 3, e.g. - clothes to wear, type of sport played, amount of liquidsdrank, amount of food eaten, mode of travel to school
2. What is weather lore? Give two examples.
Ans. Many sayings became part of weather forecasting E.g. a. Good fishingwhen nose itches, b. Good surf when board shakes c. Rats on deck bring aboutstorms
3. Why wouldn't you hold a thermometer by the bulb to measure the temperatureof the air?
Ans. Measure only temperature of your hand
4. Why is it necessary to return the metal pins to the top of the liquidafter reading a maximum and minimum thermometer?
Ans. Would continue to show old values of max and min temps
5. How do winter surfers and divers combat the cold of ocean waters?
Ans. Wear a wet suit or dry suit (divers only)
6. In what way does colder water affect fish?
Ans. Slows down their activity or can cause hypothermia
7. Explain how lows and highs in air pressure are produced.
Ans. Lows - warmer air rises, gets lighter and exerts less pressure,Highs - cooler air sinks, gets heavier and exerts more pressure
8. A marine scientist observes a reading of 950 hPa 1 hour after a previousreading of 1075 hPa on your small boat's barometer while working 5 km fromshore. What would this indicate about the weather and what action wouldyou take?
Ans. About to change and become cooler. Radio/phone shore to get weatherupdate and return home if bad weather coming
9. Explain the difference between cold and warm fronts.
Ans. Weight of air acting on the Earth's surface
10. Draw a diagram to show the difference between offshore and onshoreconditions.
Ans. In a cold front, cold air pushes under the warm air at and in awarm front, warm air rises above the cold air. See Figures 74.2 and 74.3.
11. What weather conditions usually follow a cold front?
Ans. Cooler and clearer.
12. Explain how winds are formed and draw a diagram to show the differencebetween land breezes and sea breezes.
Ans. Air moves from a high to a low pressure region.
13. In summer, which time of the day is it best to go:
Explain why in each case.
Ans. a. Early in the morning because of offshore winds. b. Late in afternoon,because of stronger sea breeze
14. Describe three effects of winds.
Ans. Any 3 e.g. Comfort, sailing, currents etc.
15. What is the wind speed and direction shown on the weather map inFigure 74.1 off Townsville?
Ans. 25 Km/hr, North West
16. Describe some effects of very strong winds on your local or nearestcoastline.
Ans. Loss of beaches, sinking foundations etc.
17. Explain the meaning of a humidity of 92 per cent.
Ans. The air contains 92% water vapour and is very humid
18. What is the name of heavy , stormy rain clouds? How high in the skyare they found?
19. Explain how past predictions of weather were made.
Ans. Very large land area with comparatively small population
20. Why are infra-red cameras useful in forecasting?
Ans. Satellites containing infra-red cameras, which can take photos atnight, constantly orbit the Earth and provide a continuous record of cloudcover;
21. What are cyclones and why are they dangerous?
Ans. Cyclones occur in tropical regions. A cyclone is a complex low pressuresystem which can cause great damage to coastal towns.
22. What is the Beaufort scale and how is it used by mariners?
Ans. Figure 79.2 shows the Beaufort scale which is a 1 - 12 force scaleof sea conditions related to different weather conditions with 1 the lowest.
23. From the weather map on page 74:
a. state the wind speed and direction for Perth;
b. state the air pressure in Sydney;
c. state what pressure systems are over Adelaide, Hobart and ChristchurchNZ;
d. describe the general weather conditions for Perth, Darwin, Sydneyand Brisbane;
e. state the wind speed and predicted weather for the South Island ofNew Zealand;
f. state where most rain fell.
a. 0 Km/hr, South East.
b. 1024 hectopascals.
c. Adelaide (Low), Hobart (High) and Christchurch NZ (low).
d. Perth Rain, Darwin Fine, Sydney Fine, Brisbane Rain.
e. Strong winds and rain
f. Perth and Brisbane.
1. A wetsuit helps its wearer keep warm in the water. Explain how a wetsuitworks
A wet suit lets in and traps a layer of water next to the skin. Bodyheat then warms this layer and insulates its wearer from the colder outsidewater and air temperatures.
2. Explain why high humidity makes us sweat more and tire faster. (Hint:water evaporation is reduced when the humidity is high.)
There is less room in the humid air for the sweat to go so its stayson the skin. We get hotter and tire faster because evaporation which coolsthe body is lower
3. Sketch the water cycle showing the Sun, sea, clouds, land and rain.Include these terms: precipitation, evaporation and condensation.
Find a science book and use the index.
4. . At home, determine the accuracy of TV weather forecasts for thenext week .
· Watch the weather report each night and write down the predictionsfor the next day's temperature, wind speeds and cloud conditions
· Each day record actual weather conditions.
· Give the success rate for the week as a percentage (number correct/numberof predictions x 100).
Watch TV and make notes. Contact the weather bureau or look up theirhome page on http://www.bom.gov.au
3. weather lore.
5. temperature and pressure
7. offshore and onshore
12. Bureau of Meteorology