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1. What do the letters DRABC, EAR and ECC stand for?
Ans. Danger, response, airway, breathing and circulation. Expired airresuscitation . External cardiac compression.
2. How do you get a response from a patient?
Ans. Shake and shout.
3. Why must you check the airway for obstacles before beginning EAR?
Ans. To see if there are any obstructions blocking the wind pipe.
4. Why should tilt the patient's head right back while performing EAR?
Ans. So that the windpipe is fully open.
5. What information should you give when sending for help?
Ans. Location, nature and possible cause of injuries, assistance givenand patient response
6. What is the principle behind the cycles in ECC?
Ans. To copy the natural breathing cycle
7. You and your friends find an adult with no pulse and no breathing.Describe what you should do.
Ans. Administer 2 person CPR.
8. While on your own, you find a baby floating face down in a pool. Afteryou drag the baby out of the pool, you discover no breathing but a pulse.What do you do?
Ans. Adminster 1 person EAR
9. What is the recovery position? Describe how it is performed.
Ans. The position you lie the patient when breathing and pulse return.Roll the patient onto their side with their head on their arm as shown inFigure 32.3.
10. A person is burnt on the hands by a hot saucepan during a schoolcamp. What should you do?
Ans. Use cold water to relieve the pain and then seek medical help.
11. How do you avoid sunburn?
Ans. Stay out of the sun, wear a hat and protective creams, wear protectiveclothing.
12. What are the symptoms of overheating and how should they be controlled?
Ans. The first type of overheating is often heat cramps. The patientsuffers painful muscle cramps, nausea, tiredness and weakness, but theirskin will still be moist and cool. Give the patient cool drinks to replacelost fluid, move them to a cooler place, stretch their cramped muscles andmake them rest.
Heat exhaustion is more severe. The patient will have heat cramps butwill also be thirsty, with a headache. They may be uncoordinated and sweatingheavily. Their skin will be pale, cool and clammy. As for heat cramps, liethe person down in a cool, quiet place with tight clothing removed. Givethem drinks sponge their body with cool water. If there is no sign of aquick recovery, consult a doctor.
Heat stroke, the third level of overheating, can kill. The symptoms aresimilar to other forms of overheating but patient has a rapid, powerfulpulse and their skin is flushed and dry. This person needs to see a doctorurgently. In the meantime remember DRABC: give drinks (if conscious) andcool them with fans, wet sheets, sponges or ice packs.
13. What is hypothermia and how can it be controlled?
Ans. Hypothermia occurs when the body is cooled to the point where itcan no longer warm itself. Wetsuits and dry suits can prevent over-cooling(see Figure 34.2.). Wetsuits trap a layer of water next to the skin whichis heated by the body and in turn keeps the body warm. Dry suits trap alayer of air next to the skin.
14. What are three things you could do to prevent seasickness?
Ans. The best form of cure is prevention. Some people report good resultsfrom patches worn on the skin. Others use acupressure bands. In many cases,people are not sick until they start thinking about being ill. Be carefulwith your diet and sleep before and during a boat trip. Going on an earlymorning boat trip after a big night out is a recipe for disaster!
15. Why should you not move a person with a suspected broken bone orspinal injury?
Ans. If you suspect spinal injuries, the casualty should never be movedby an untrained person. If you have to move them in an emergency (for example,to prevent drowning), drag the patient by their shoulders and never morethan absolutely necessary.
16. What is fish poisoning and how can it be prevented?
Ans. Fish poisoning is ciguatera toxin from fish that have eaten an algaeis a cumulative poison and it may take several meals of affected fish forthe poison to build up enough to cause ill effects. It can also take monthsfor the poison to leave the system. In cases of fish or ciguatera poisoning,induce vomiting and get the patient to a doctor as quickly as possible.Watch the patient's vital signs and remember DRABC. To avoid fish poisoning,seek the advice of locals.
17. What is the first aid for a fish spine poisoning?
Ans. Remove the patient quickly from the water. First aid for all fishspine injuries includes immersing the affected area in hot water (up to50oC) as soon as possible to immobilise any venom. If a local anaestheticis available, use it to relieve the pain and calm the victim.
Seek medical assistance while applying a pressure bandage (similar tothat used on a snake bite) to stop the spread of any venom. Applicationshould be similar to that of a snake bite. Monitor the patient carefullyfor respiratory failure and cardiac arrest. Be prepared to use EAR and ECC.
18. How does a stingray inflict venom on a victim and what is the treatment?
Ans. Stingrays have a barb on the tail and punctures are always painful.A rescuer must be prepared for ECC and EAR if the patient's reaction isparticularly bad. As with fish spine punctures, immerse the affected areain hot water and apply local anaesthetic after the wound has been thoroughlycleaned.
Seek medical assistance. The doctor will inject more local anaestheticin order to remove all traces of the barb, its sheath and venom.
19. What is the first aid for removing the bristles from a bristle wormpuncture wound?
Ans. The first aid for itching caused by the bristles of a bristle wormis to remove them by applying adhesive tape over the affected area. As theadhesive tape is peeled off, the bristles pull out of the tissues. Applyan anaesthetic ointment to the affected area. Seek medical advice if theproblem persists.
20. A person treads on a sea urchin and gets a number of spines in herfoot. What is the treatment?
Ans. First aid is to remove the spine with tweezers and thoroughly cleanthe wound. Apply a local anaesthetic cream to relieve the pain. If spinesare particularly hard to remove, use a razor blade to slice the skin offuntil the top of the spine is exposed. Wedge the blade into the side ofthe spine and lever it out. Cover the area with a clean dressing and seekmedical advice if the patient shows any bad reactions.
21. What is the best way to avoid a puncture wound?
Ans. Wear shoes or gloves when diving or snorkelling.
22. What is the difference between the treatment of box jellyfish andbluebottle stings?
Ans. Box jellyfish require vinegar, all other blue bottle stings requireice or cold water.
23. What is the treatment for a bite by a small shark?
Ans. Use a compression bandaged to stop the bleeding. Seek medical adviceimmediately.
24. What types of injuries can scuba divers suffer from?
Ans. Barotraumas, nitrogen narcosis, hypothermia, sea sickness.
1. Find out how to remove a fish hook from a persons finger.
Suggestion. Look in the Surf Lifesaving manual.
2. How could control a nose bleed?
Suggestion. Ask your local GP.
3. A person had a tooth broken off. Could that tooth be glued back on?Ask you dentist.
Suggestion. Make a phone call or write a letter.
4. What are the symptoms of a heart attack?
Suggestion. Look up a first aid book.
5. A person's clothing catches fire. What should you do?
Suggestion. Deprive the fire of oxygen. Ask your local fire station.
6. What is the treatment for snake bite?
Suggestion. These days using a pressure bandage. Look up a first aidbook.
7. Consider doing a first aid course. It will be useful! You could contactyour local branch of Red Cross or St. John Ambulance. You may even be ableto do a first aid certificate course through your school.
Suggestion. Ask your teacher to see if you can do a course through theschool for a student discount rate.
8. Imagine you are putting together a marine first aid kit.
· Suggest some items which may not be needed in your area.
Suggestion. Consider the area. Are there stingers, sharks, snakes, coralout crops?
· Suggest any extra items which should be added for your area.
Suggestion. This is area dependant. When you have made up your list,go and visit your local ambulance station and see what they carry.
9. Some sharks behave in different ways when they are aggressive. Findout more details.
Suggestion. Start with the library or type shark into your internet searchengine.
10. What is the free call number for diving emergencies in your phonebook?
Suggestion. Look it up in the white pages or dial 013.
11. How much does it cost to join the ambulance? What is the cost totransport you to your local hospital if you are not in the ambulance?
Suggestion. Ask your parent or care-givers how much it cost last year.There should be a brochure with the years subscription.
12. What is your local doctor's name and phone number?
Suggestion. Look it up.
13. Prepare a wall chart that shows how to treat the stings, bites andpuncture wounds mentioned in this chapter.
Suggestion. Wall chart paper from newsagent and then draw up a roughone first. A good way to start may be columns with the headings of nameof animal, danger, symptoms and treatment.
1. First aid
7. External cardiac compression