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1. What factor initially produces waves?
Ans. Winds acting in fetch zones
2. Draw a fully labelled diagram of a wave showing its crest, length,height and trough.
Ans. See Figure 111.4.
3. Use a sketch to describe how a wave approaches a shore.
Ans. See Figure 112.1.
4. Explain how a dumper is formed.
Ans. Wave moves quickly from deep to shallow water or large wave breaksin shallow water.
5. Describe how waves break in deep water.
Ans. When strong winds cause them to build in height to 1/7 of theirwavelength.
6. Describe what will happen to a cork floating in the sea if it is pickedup by:
a. A swell wave
b. A breaking wave
Ans. a. Move up and down in the one spot in a circular motion b. Carriedforward.
7. Why are waves on point breaks said to be so consistent?
Ans. Because the ocean topography does not change.
8. Explain how the topography of the seabed floor can affect the shapeof a wave.
Ans. Change of banks due to constant sand movement
9. What main factor makes a tsunami so dangerous?
Ans. Wave size as it breaks close to shore
10. Explain the difference between swell and breaker waves.
Ans. Swell - doesn't break, Breakers do
11. Construct a table that outlines the differences between point andbeach breaks.
Waves break in one direction
Waves in two directions
Banks constantly changing
12. What is a microridge and how does it form?
Ans. The edge of a deposited layer of sand is called a microridge andcan be seen as a line on a beach. It forms as waves stop on the beach.
13. How are barnacles and kelp adapted to life in the waves?
Ans. With holdfasts.
14. What clothing and equipment is required for board surfing?
Ans. Summer. Board shorts and a lycra suit. Winter. Wet suit and maybea helmet, gloves and booties.
15. What is a gorilla grip and why is it useful?
Ans. A non-slip layer of rubber latex shown in Figure 117.1.
16. When you first arrive at a beach, what should you do before goinginto the water?
Ans. Take the time to see where the waves are breaking, presence of rips,how others are faring, possible hazards etc.
17. Explain what dropping in means and why it is not recommended.
Ans. Taking off on a wave that has another surfer already up on the insidesection. Collisions on waves are very dangerous
18. Why is paddling out so energy sapping for beginner surfers?
Ans. Breaking waves tend to wash you back ashore.
19. List three ways to make paddling out easier and faster.
Ans. Duck diving, rolling over, paddling out in a rip
20. Why, when turning a surfboard, do you need to put weight on yourback foot?
Ans. Assists the turn by pivoting (applying force on a smaller area)
21. Look at Figure 120.1. Which would be the safest place to paddle out?
Ans. Away from the wave breaking zone.
1. Research the best places for a surf at your local beaches.
Include in your research weather the places are points, beach breaksor a combination of both.
Note the best conditions for surfing such as wind direction, time andtide.
Talk to local surf shop.
2. Describe the waves and conditions preferred by the following:
d. body boarders
a. Boardriders selecting waves with better shapes and more suited totheir activity compared to the surfboats which were trying to battle dumpersnot at all suited to the construction of their boats.
3. Research the seasonal cycle of your local beach. Make sketches overa year.
In summer the smaller waves move the sand onto the beach from the sandbars. These were formed by the winter waves removing sand from the beach.
4. Find out the basic skills of riding a surf ski
Similar with different equipment and skills in paddling out
6. orbit fields
9. rising sea
10. ocean swells
11. Beach breaks